# Rectified Flow and Beyond

#### Does a straighter flow always yield more efficient transport?

Diffusion models have demonstrated interesting applications, such as text-to-image generation (stable diffusion, DALLE), text-to-video generation (Sora), and text-to-audio generation. However, diffusion models often require tens or hundreds of steps in generation and is quite slow.

### Rectified Flow

To propose more efficient transport, rectified flow (RecFlow) (Liu et al., 2023) proposes to straighten the flow to enable fewer discretization steps and has been adopted by stability AI (AI, 2024). For a given coupling $(\mathrm{X}_0, \mathrm{X}_1)\sim \pi_0\otimes \pi_1$, RecFlow proposes to solve the following probability-flow ODE

\(\begin{align} \mathrm{d} \mathrm{Z}_t = \nu_t^{\star} (\mathrm{Z}_t) \mathrm{d} t, \label{ODE} \end{align}\) where $t\in[0, 1]$, and $\mathrm{Z}_0\sim \mathrm{X}_0$. $\nu_t^{\star}$ is the velocity field and is the solution of the objective

\[\begin{align} \inf_{\nu} \int_0^1 \mathbb{E}\bigg[ \big\|\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0 - \nu_t(\mathrm{X}_t, t) \big\|_2^2 \bigg] \mathrm{d} t.\label{obj} \end{align}\]where $\mathrm{X}_t = t \mathrm{X}_0 + (1-t) \mathrm{X}_1$. The solution of Eq.\eqref{obj} is a straight line interpolation between $\mathrm{X}_0$ and $\mathrm{X}_1$ such that

\[\begin{align} \nu_t^{\star}(z)=\mathbb{E}\bigg[ \mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0 | \mathrm{X}_t = z\bigg].\label{velocity_field} \end{align}\]To obtain a valid coupling $(\mathrm{Z}_0, \mathrm{Z}_1)$, we can draw $\mathrm{Z}_1$ by simulating RecFlow \eqref{ODE} with $\mathrm{Z}_0\sim \pi_0$.

#### Lower Transport Costs

For any convex transport cost function $c(\cdot)$, such as $\|\cdot\|_2^2$. We show the rectified coupling $(\mathrm{Z}_0, \mathrm{Z}_1)$ yields a lower transport cost in that $\mathbb{E}\big[c(\mathrm{Z}_1 - \mathrm{Z}_0) \big]\leq \mathbb{E}\big[c(\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0) \big]$.

\[\begin{align}\notag \mathbb{E}\big[c(\mathrm{Z}_1 - \mathrm{Z}_0) \big] &= \mathbb{E}\bigg[c\bigg(\int_0^1 \nu_t^{\star}(\mathrm{Z}_t)\mathrm{d} t \bigg) \bigg] \\ \notag & \leq \mathbb{E}\bigg[\int_0^1 c(\nu_t^{\star}(\mathrm{Z}_t)) \mathrm{d} t \bigg] \\ \notag & = \mathbb{E}\bigg[\int_0^1 c(\nu_t^{\star}(\mathrm{X}_t)) \mathrm{d} t \bigg] \\ \notag & = \mathbb{E}\bigg[\int_0^1 c(\mathbb{E}\big[(\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0 \big| \mathrm{X}_t)\big]) \mathrm{d} t \bigg] \\ \notag & \leq \mathbb{E}\bigg[\int_0^1 \mathbb{E}\big[c(\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0) \big| \mathrm{X}_t\big] \mathrm{d} t \bigg] \\ \notag & = \int_0^1 \mathbb{E}\big[c(\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0)\big]\mathrm{d} t \\ \notag & = \mathbb{E}\big[c(\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0) \big]. \end{align}\]where the first equality follows by Eq.\eqref{ODE} and the two inequalities follow by Jensen’s inequality. The second equality holds since Law($\mathrm{X}_t$)=Law($\mathrm{Z}_t$). The nice property also motivates to iterate this procedure to keep reducing the transport cost.

Nevertheless, straight interpolation is a necessary condition for optimal transport when the transport cost is the Euclidean distance (Villani, 2008), but it is not sufficient because the couplings $(\mathrm{Z}_0, \mathrm{Z}_1)$ are also subject to optimize.

#### More general cost functions

The quadratic transport cost function corresponds to the Brownian motion prior. For more general convex cost function $c$, the vector field (Liu, 2022) follows that

\[\begin{align} \nu_t(\mathrm{Z})=\nabla c^{\star} (\nabla f_t (\mathrm{Z})),\notag \end{align}\]where $c^{\star}$ is the conjugate function of $c$, $f$ is the solution of the Bregman divergence

\[\begin{align} \inf_f \int_0^1 \mathbb{E}\bigg[c^{\star}(\nabla f(\mathrm{X}_t)) - (\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0)^\intercal \nabla f(\mathrm{X}_t) + c(\mathrm{X}_1 - \mathrm{X}_0) \bigg] \mathrm{d} t.\notag \end{align}\]The new path ${\mathrm{Z}_t: t\in[0, 1]}$ can be simulated via $\mathrm{d} \mathrm{Z}_t=\nabla c^{\star}(\nabla f_t(\mathrm{Z}_t))\mathrm{d}t$ with $\mathrm{Z}_0=\mathrm{X}_0$.

#### Comments:

**Straight flow with optimized coupling**: Similar to flow matching (Lipman et al., 2023), RecFlow has a fairly user-friendly training loss via a quadratic cost and is appealing for straight-path simulation. The iterative rectify procedure further optimizes the coupling and makes the transport more efficient.

**Formulation**: The extension to general transport cost function looks a bit more complex than the Schrödinger bridge formulation, where the latter (Chen et al., 2022) is really elegant for optimizing general (convex/ non-convex) transport cost functions.

**Flow or diffusion**: Similar to SGD, RecFlow utilizes the randomness in mini-batch simulation and appears to be scalable for real-world datasets. This brings us a question if the manually injected noise via diffusion models are really needed. For example, stochastic interpolant (Albergo et al., 2023) does unify flow and diffusion, but the training loss becomes implicit again, which may affect the scalability. In my opinion, diffusion model should still outperform flow models in training due to the ease of annealing.

**Straight v.s. non-straight flows**: I am not fully convinced if displacement interpolantion is always the goal for general non-linear transport due to energy barriers. Empirically, we often observe a decent model with 12-16 NFEs, but a much worse model when we further decrease NFE and we have to resort to hacky tricks and distillation. Such empirical findings also motivate the study of (Heek et al., 2024).

- Liu, X., Gong, C., & Liu, Q. (2023). Flow Straight and Fast: Learning to Generate and Transfer Data with Rectified Flow.
*ICLR*. - AI, S. (2024). Scaling Rectified Flow Transformers for High-Resolution Image Synthesis.
*ArXiv:2403.03206v1*. - Villani, C. (2008). Optimal Transport: Old and New.
*Springer*. - Liu, Q. (2022). Rectified Flow: A Marginal Preserving Approach to Optimal Transport.
*ArXiv:2209.14577v1*. - Lipman, Y., Chen, R. T. Q., Ben-Hamu, H., Nickel, M., & Le, M. (2023). Flow Matching for Generative Modeling.
*ICLR*. - Chen, T., Liu, G.-H., & Theodorou, E. A. (2022). Likelihood Training of Schrödinger Bridge using Forward-Backward SDEs Theory.
*ICLR*. - Albergo, M. S., Boffi, N. M., & Vanden-Eijnden, E. (2023). Stochastic Interpolants: A Unifying Framework for Flows and Diffusions.
*ArXiv:2303.08797v3*. - Heek, J., Hoogeboom, E., & Salimans, T. (2024). Multistep Consistency Models.
*ArXiv:2403.06807v1*.